Differences Between Black Box Testing and White Box Testing

by Tashina

What is Black Box Testing?

In a black box text, the tester does not hold any information about internal working of a system. It is high-level testing that has a focus on the software’s behaviour. In this test, a tester conducts the test from the perspective of an end-user or external party. We can apply black box testing to all levels of software testing i.e. unit, system, integration and acceptance.

What is White Box Testing?

A White-box testing technique involves checking the internal functioning of a software system. The test is based upon covering statements of code, branches and conditions. We also call it glass box, clear box or transparent technique because the tester is already aware of the structure/implementation/design of the item they are testing.

Key Differences

Black Box Testing White Box Testing
• In this test, there is no prior knowledge of internal structure of application or program • There is prior knowledge of internal structure of the application or program
• Does not require prior programming or implementation knowledge • Requires the tester to have prior programming or implementation knowledge
• Software testers mostly conduct this test • Software developers mostly conduct this test
• The main goal is to test the behaviour of the software or application • Main aim is to test the internal operations and logic of the software system
• It is focused on end-user and external perspective. Hence, it can be referred as external or outer testing • Focused on conditions, code structure, branches and paths. Thus, it is referred as internal or inner software testing
• Provides low granularity reports • Provides high granularity reports
• Not very time-consuming • It requires more time
• It is a functional test of the software application • It is a structural test of the application
• We can start black box testing on the basis of the requirement specification document • You can do white box testing after a detail design document
• It can be applied to higher levels of software testing • Generally applied to lower levels of software testing
• Black box is not suitable for algorithm testing • Whitebox is considered suitable for algorithm testing
• It can be carried out with trial and error methods • Can better test data domains and inner boundaries
• Types of Black Box testing include:
o Functional testing
o Non-functional testing
o Regression testing
• Types of White Box testing include:
o Path Testing
o Condition Testing
o Loop Testing

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